The cross-flow turbine is a type of impulse turbine. The design of this particular turbine was initially developed by Anthony Michell, an Austrian Engineer, in the early 1900’s. The idea was further developed by Donát Bánki, a Hungarian engineer, and even later it was improved upon again by Fritz Ossberger, a German engineer.
The cross-flow turbine is designed with long blades situated radially around a horizontal shaft, forming a cylindrical-shaped runner. The runner has a hollow interior, thus allowing the water to pass through twice (outside to inside, then inside to outside). This design helps increase efficiency. It also allows the turbine to be self-cleaning.
Cross-flow turbines are ideally suited for systems with high flow and low head. These turbines are often used in mini and micro hydropower applications due to their low price and high efficiency.